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Introduction

India is the second largest producer of rice in the world (21 per cent of global rice production), next to China. In India, paddy occupies the first place both in area and production. Top ten producing states in India are West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Odhisa, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Karnataka and Haryana. Paddy becomes rice when the husk is removed through milling processes.

Popular Varieties

  • IR-20
  • Pusa Basmati (IET10364)
  • Punjab Basmati - 1 (Bauni Basmati)
  • Haryana Basmati -1 (HKR-228/IET10367)
  • Mahi sugandha
  • Kasturi (IET-8580)

Maturity Indices

  • Paddy crop should be harvested, when the grains become hard and contain about 20-22 percent moisture.
  • The water from paddy field should be drained about a week or 10 days before the expected harvesting, which helps in employing mechanical harvesters.
  • For combine harvesting, moisture percentage should be 18 per cent or lower.
  • The harvested paddy should be dried to 13 per cent or below at the time of storing and there should be no green kernels.

Planting - Harvesting Season

  • Autumn harvesting: Sep.-Nov., June-July, July-Nov.
  • Winter: Oct.-Jan.
  • Summer: April-June

Packaging

  • Polythene impregnated jute bags
  • PP woven bags
  • WPP bags
  • Woven laminated bags

Storage

  • Storage site should be protected from moisture, excessive heat, insects, rodents, and bad weather conditions.
  • In godowns, sufficient space should be provided between two stacks for proper aeration.
  • The structure should be clean, free from left-over grains, cracks, holes and crevices in the structure and should be fumigated before storage.
  • Before storage, paddy/rice grains should be properly dried and cleaned to avoid quality deterioration.
  • It is advisable to always use new and dry gunny bags. If old bags are to be used, disinfect them by boiling in 1 percent Malathion solution for 3-4 minutes and dry them properly.

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