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Introduction

Wheat is grown in India over an area of about 266.92 lakh with a production of 721.40 lakh tonnes (2011-12). The major Wheat producing States are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, and Gujarat. These States contribute about 99.5% of total Wheat production in the country.

Popular Variety

  • Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schub L.)
  • Macaroni wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)
  • Common Bread Wheat (Triticum vulgare Host.)
  • Indian Dwarf wheat (Triticum spherococcum Mihi.)
  • Mexican Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Maturity Indices

As it ripens, wheat turns dull yellow, and the kernels become brittle, loss of green colour from the peduncle, kernel (including crease) and glumes. Winter wheat ripens about in June in the South, and much later in the North. The moisture content of the wheat is a big deciding factor on when exactly the wheat is harvested. Harvesting should commence at 16 % grain moisture content.

Harvesting

Wheat is mainly a Rabi (winter) season crop in India. Wheat grains must be dry before it can be harvested. Wheat is harvested in November/December, however, but later harvestings are applicable in case of spring and summer wheat. Feb. – May.

Storage

Moisture contents up to 12 percent moisture or less are preferred for storage. The grain must be protected from insects, rodents and external moisture to be effectively stored for a long period. Storage at 40-60o F is optimal for most home stored grains.

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