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Introduction

Poultry Meat & Egg

  • India produces 4.2 million tones of meat.
  • India ranks third in chevron production next to china and Pakistan.
  • Chevron production is 14% of the total meat produced in India (3277 thousand MT)
  • Meat contributes 27.6% of the total meat available for mass consumption.
  • The plus points about Indian. Chevron is that it is of lean type and is preferred in the world market.
  • India has a livestock population of 470 million, which includes 205 million cattle and 90 million buffaloes.
  • India’s livestock population is largest in the world with 50% of world’s buffaloes, 20% of cattle and one-sixth of total production, but only1% of total meat production is converted to value added products.
  • The country produces about 450 million broilers and 30 billion eggs annually. Animals, which are generally used for production of meat, are cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goat, pigs and poultry.
  • Methuen is also slaughtered for meat in North East and Sikkim. Rabbit meat is also used as a specialty in Kerala and some other states.
  • India is the largest buffalo meat exporting country (carabeef) globally with smaller amount of sheep meat. Production and export of meat from India commenced in the year 1969.
  • During the last 42 years the quantity of meat exported from India has been increasing and so also the number of countries to which it is exported.
  • The total meat production of India in 2011-12 was 5514 thousand metric tonnes. Uttar Pradesh (956 thousand MT) is the leading meat producer followed by Andhra Pradesh (824 thousand MT), West Bengal (611 thousand MT) and Maharashtra (585 thousand MT).
  • India ranks fifth in the world with annual egg production of 1.61 million tons (FAO 1997).
  • The state of Andhra Pradesh is the largest egg producer in India.
  • Over all, Andhra Pradesh counts for maximum egg production accounting for a third of the country’s daily production of 5.5 crore.
  • Mainly India export eggs, egg powder, frozen egg yolk and albumin powder to Europe, Japan and other countries.
  • Daily export of about 20 lakh eggs in containers are being sent to the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Muscat, Iran, Iraq and several African countries.
  • India’s National Average yield per bird : 290 eggs.
  • Egg production system: 80% cages, 20% Deep litter.

Sheep & Goat Breeds:

  • Goat Breeds:

Sirohi, Marwari, Beetal, Barbari, Black Bengal, Jhakrana are the important goat meat breeds of India. Black Bengal is the breed that can adapt to any environment easily and it isa hardy breed. It produces high-quality meat and skin.

  • Sheep Breeds:

Deccani, Nellore, Mandya, Mecheri,  Chennai red, Ramanathapuram white are the important sheep breeds of India. Mandya breed is the best mutton type conformation among the Indian sheep breeds.

Maturity Indices

  • The meat is produces when the Sheep and goats ages are above 9-12 months.
  • Chicken is produce when the age of breed is above 5-7 weeks.

Packaging

The meat is packaged in distinct ways, which are given below

Vacuum Packaging

Two basic systems of vacuum packaging are:

  • Drawing a low  vacuum within a plastic  film of copolymers with  polyvinyl dine chloride, sealing  the  bag  with  a  metal  clip,  and  then heat shrinking in hot water  for 2 seconds
  • Creating a much  higher  vacuum inside  a nylon/ polythene laminate film and then heat-sealing  the bag.  The package  may then be passed  through a heat tunnel which causes the bag to shrink tightly around the meat, forming a firm seal.

The  secondary shrinking of the  vac-pac produces a broad seal which reduces the incidence of  'leakers',  and  retains  the  drip around the  meat, preventing it from spreading around the bag  and  appearing unsightly.

  1. Punctures from bone are said  to be more common with lamb and pork.
  2. Pay close attention to the following requirements:
  3. Initial bacterial level in the meat must be low.
  4. Handling must  be hygienic throughout the process.
  5. Packs and boxed packs must be transported in rigid  baskets  rather than cartons, so as to reduce rupturing of the pouch.
  6. The meat must have a low pH preferably below 5.8.
  7. A temperature of 0-2°C must be maintained.
  8. The film must not be punctured. Meat will normally take about 10 minutes to regain bloom. Once opened the meat will have the same shelf-life as fresh carcass meat.
Modified Atmospheric Packaging (MAP):

The fact that vacuum-packed meat retains the purple colour of myoglobin, rather than the bright red  colour of oxymyoglobin associated with quality by  the  consumer, has limited the use of chilled vacuum-packed retail cuts.

This requirement  for  colour  has  led  to  the widespread use  of modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP)  where the  meat  is contained within an  impermeable plastic pack in an atmosphere of selected gases. Beef placed in an atmosphere of 60-80% 02  and  20-40% CO, within a gas-impermeable pack  can  retain a bright red colour for at least a week.

With cured meats and poultry, oxygen is not required to maintain the optimal colour, so an atmosphere of 75-80% nitrogen with 20-25% C02 is used. (Carbon dioxide is used for its bacteriostatic effect.)

Storage

There are two methods of storage:

  • Chilling & Refrigeration

To prevent or even to reduce the deterioration process, particularly microorganism development, chilling has to be carried out quickly.

  • Freezing

Frozen storage for beef must be at a temperature of –l7oC and at-20oc for pig meat.

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