third in chevron production next to china and Pakistan.
production is 14% of the total meat produced in India (3277 thousand MT)
27.6% of the total meat available for mass consumption.
points about Indian. Chevron is that it is of lean type and is preferred in the
India has a livestock population
of 470 million, which includes 205 million cattle and 90 million buffaloes.
India’s livestock population is
largest in the world with 50% of world’s buffaloes, 20% of cattle and one-sixth
of total production, but only1% of total meat production is converted to value
The country produces about 450
million broilers and 30 billion eggs annually. Animals, which are generally
used for production of meat, are cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goat, pigs and
Methuen is also slaughtered for
meat in North East and Sikkim. Rabbit meat is also used as a specialty in
Kerala and some other states.
India is the
largest buffalo meat exporting country (carabeef) globally with smaller amount
of sheep meat. Production and export of meat from India commenced in the year
During the last
42 years the quantity of meat exported from India has been increasing and so
also the number of countries to which it is exported.
The total meat
production of India in 2011-12 was 5514 thousand metric tonnes. Uttar Pradesh
(956 thousand MT) is the leading meat producer followed by Andhra Pradesh (824
thousand MT), West Bengal (611 thousand MT) and Maharashtra (585 thousand MT).
ranks fifth in the world with annual egg production of 1.61 million tons (FAO
state of Andhra Pradesh is the largest egg producer in India.
all, Andhra Pradesh counts for maximum egg production accounting for a third of
the country’s daily production of 5.5 crore.
India export eggs, egg powder, frozen egg yolk and albumin powder to Europe,
Japan and other countries.
export of about 20 lakh eggs in containers are being sent to the United Arab
Emirates, Kuwait, Muscat, Iran, Iraq and several African countries.
National Average yield per bird : 290 eggs.
production system: 80% cages, 20% Deep litter.
Sheep & Goat Breeds:
Marwari, Beetal, Barbari, Black Bengal, Jhakrana are the important goat meat
breeds of India. Black Bengal is the breed that can adapt to any environment
easily and it isa hardy breed. It produces high-quality meat and skin.
Deccani, Nellore, Mandya,
Mecheri, Chennai red, Ramanathapuram
white are the important sheep breeds of India. Mandya breed is the best mutton
type conformation among the Indian sheep breeds.
The meat is produces when the Sheep
and goats ages are above 9-12 months.
Chicken is produce when the age of
breed is above 5-7 weeks.
The meat is packaged
in distinct ways, which are given below
Two basic systems of vacuum
Drawing a low vacuum within a plastic film of copolymers with polyvinyl dine chloride, sealing the
bag with a
metal clip, and
then heat shrinking in hot water
for 2 seconds
Creating a much higher
vacuum inside a nylon/
polythene laminate film and then heat-sealing the bag. The package may then be passed through a heat tunnel which causes the
bag to shrink tightly around the meat, forming a firm seal.
secondary shrinking of the
vac-pac produces a broad seal which reduces the incidence of 'leakers',
and retains the drip around the meat, preventing it from spreading around the
Punctures from bone are
said to be more common with lamb
Pay close attention to the
Initial bacterial level in the
meat must be low.
Handling must be hygienic throughout the process.
Packs and boxed packs must be
transported in rigid baskets rather than cartons, so as to reduce
rupturing of the pouch.
The meat must have a low pH
preferably below 5.8.
A temperature of 0-2°C must be
The film must not be punctured.
Meat will normally take about 10 minutes to regain bloom. Once opened the
meat will have the same shelf-life as fresh carcass meat.
Modified Atmospheric Packaging (MAP):
The fact that vacuum-packed meat retains the purple colour
of myoglobin, rather than the bright red
colour of oxymyoglobin associated with quality by the
consumer, has limited the
use of chilled vacuum-packed retail cuts.
requirement for colour
has led to
the widespread use of
modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP)
where the meat is contained within an impermeable plastic pack in an atmosphere of
selected gases. Beef placed in an atmosphere of 60-80% 02 and
20-40% CO, within a gas-impermeable pack can
retain a bright red colour for at least a week.
cured meats and poultry, oxygen is not required to maintain the optimal colour,
so an atmosphere of 75-80% nitrogen with 20-25% C02 is used. (Carbon dioxide is
used for its bacteriostatic effect.)
two methods of storage:
Chilling & Refrigeration
To prevent or even to
reduce the deterioration process, particularly microorganism development,
chilling has to be carried out quickly.
Frozen storage for beef
must be at a temperature of –l7oC and at-20oc for pig